Rosemary has another latin name is Rosmarinus officinalis. There are 2 active ingredeints which extract from rosemary , they are rosemary acid and carnosice acid . This article will show your the top 10 rosemary extract benefits for you .
Rosmary extract is a widely distributed polyphenols in nature, is the effective activity ingredients in herbs such as rosemary ,basil and radix salvia Minute. Too much In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that rosmarinic acid has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-virus, immune regulation and other pharmacological effects on tumor, organ transplant rejection Response and other diseases with treatment or synergistic effect on the cardiovascular system and the nervous system has a protective effect. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that rosmarinic acid is in vivoCan be metabolized as binding and / or methylated forms, mainly through the urine excreted. Through the research of domestic and foreign literature in recent years,Pharmacological studies and pharmacokinetic properties of rosmarinic acid.
Rosmarinic acid is a widely distributed Water-soluble polyphenolic hydroxyl compounds in plants
Chemical name is R. (T) 2 – [[3- (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) -l. Oxo-2-propenyl] oxyYl] -3,4-dihydroxybenzenepropanoic acid, composed of one molecule of caffeic acid and one molecule 3,4. Dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid condensation, the structure shown in Figure1
Figure1: Chemical structure of rosemary acid
Rosemary Acid was first found in 1958 in Labiatae rosemary （Rosemarinus offinalis L.), And thereafter obtained in a variety of plants. Rosemary Acid can be get by extraction, biosynthesis, chemical synthesis, and so on.
This effective activity can be find in many of Chinese herbal medicine such as Salvia miltiorrhiza, perilla and Prunella vulgaris. With anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-virus and other effetion.
In the food, medicine, cosmetics and other fields have been widely used. Recently research have found that rosmarinic acid can be regulated by the immune systemtreatment of tumors, immune rejection plays a role
In vivo metabolic research has also made new progress. This article deals with rosmarinic acid the role of metabolism and metabolic characteristics of nearly 10 years of research progress to do a review.
Rosmary acid has a strong free radical scavenging effect, antioxidant activity stronger than vitamin E ¨ 1.Many Studies have shown that rosmarinic acid not only can end the lipid peroxidation by competitive binding of lipid peroxy radicals;But also by inhibiting the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein synthesis and nitric oxide production and play an antioxidant H1.
Rosmary acid has a significant inhibitory effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis and lipid peroxidation in rats,Dose-dependent inhibition of mitochondrial swelling, increased membrane fluidity, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) production, enhanced succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, inhibition of hydroxyl free radicals induced by mouse liver mitochondria Damage “1.
Ms Chen who work in Plantnat Natural Ingredients Inc. found that rosmarinic acid can inhibit neutrophil respiratory burst and lipid peroxidation and inhibit the release of lysosomal enzymes by reducing intracellular calcium concentration, Cells from free radical damage.
When the dose of rosmarinic acid reached 400 mg per kg ~ d “, the serum and brain superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione and glutathione were significantly increased in D-galactose-induced aging mice Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, decreased MDA content and triglyceride level, significantly prolonged mouse normal pressure Resistant to hypoxia.
Rosmarinic acid has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, both on bacteria and fungi are inhibited.Rosmarinic acid for Bacillus subtilis,Rhizoctonia solani,Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus and Rhizoctonia solani and other bacteria have a significant inhibitory effect.
Neusa found that rosmarinic acid can inhibit the growth of Streptococcus caries, Streptococcus mutans and biofilm formation,low their glucosyltransferase activity, indicating that rosmarinic acid can be used for the prevention and treatment of oral diseases.
Rosematic acid anti-bacterial mechanism of the study shows that: rosmarinic acid on the one hand can increase the permeability of bacterial cell membrane, resulting in sugar, a large number of protein leakage, affecting the normal metabolism of bacteria; the other hand can also affect the bacterial protein Metabolism, to Taq DNA polymerase also has an inhibitory effect.
The inhibitory activity of rosmarinic acid on the mycelial growth and spore germination of different plant pathogenic fungi were studied By GuoDao who work in Plantnat Natural Ingreidents Inc. It was found that rosmarinic acid was resistant to Botrytis cinerea, Pseudomonas syringae, Penicillium citrinum and Pleurotus ostreatus The inhibitory effect of mycelial growth was strong, and the inhibition of spore germination was the strongest.
The inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpesviruses (HSV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) have been reported in the literature.
Rosmary acid and its derivatives 6 ‘mononitroso rosmarinic acid, 6’, 6 “a double nitro rosmarinic acid on HIV integrase are inhibited, the study found that rosmarinic acid nitro Can significantly improve its inhibition of HIV integrase and antiviral activity, and will not cause increased cytotoxicity; rosmarinic acid can also inhibit the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
Rosmarinic acid can inhibit the herpes virus, mint, rosemary, Prunella vulgaris and other Labiata plants ethanol extract at the cellular level showed good anti-herpes virus activity (IC d = 0.05 ~ 0.82 bucket g · ML.) In the above alcohol extract
In the prevalence of rosmarinic acid may be their play the role of anti-herpes virus main active ingredients.
Rosmarinic acid reduced the mortality of Japanese encephalitis virus mice from 100% to 20% in the control group, significantly reduced viral load and proinflammatory cytokine levels in the brain, indicating that rosmarinic acid could be used as a potential Treatment means to alleviate neurological complications caused by Japanese encephalitis .
In this study, we found a series of active compounds in the high-throughput screening of anti-influenza neuraminase (NA) inhibitors, in which rosmarinic acid has a high NA inhibitory activity, in vitro influenza virus A / PR / 8/34 (H1N1) -induced cytopathic effect evaluation showed that the antiviral activity of rosmarinic acid was higher than that of ribavirin, its anti-influenza virus effect and its structural information Provide important information for the design and synthesis of new anti-influenza virus drugs.
Studies have shown that rosmarinic acid has better anti-inflammatory effects than indomethacin and has no induced ulcer when oral doses of up to 316 mg · kg (oral indomethacin dose of 3.2 mg · kg) The formation of significant ulcers), the mice dose of 316 mg · kg is still not toxic, based on rosmarinic acid in the anti-inflammatory aspects of high efficiency, low toxicity, low adverse reactions, etc., Germany Nattermann company in 1990 will Its as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesics put on the market.
In recent years, the researchers have more research on the anti-nephritis effect of rosmarinic acid. Rosmarinic acid can reduce proteinuria levels, plasma IgA levels and glomerular IgA deposition in HIGA mice. Glomerular mesangial cells (GMC) proliferation and mesangial matrix enlargement is the main pathological changes of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis.
Rosmarinic acid can inhibit the above-mentioned changes of mesangial cells, and inhibit the proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells by transforming growth factor-Bl (TGF-B1) in platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation of GMC Monocyte chemotacticprotein-1 (MCP-I), and inhibit glomerular mesangial cell synthesis of fibronectin.
In the study of the anti-cancer effect of Perilla frutescens found that the rosemary extract can inhibit 7, 12-dimethylbenzene anthracene and 12-oxygen. 14 monoacyl phorbol. 13-acetate-induced mouse skin tumor formation, and its antitumor activity was associated with the content of rosmarinic acid in the extract. Rosmarinic acid could significantly inhibit the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1), vascular cell adhesion molecule (o) (Kupffer cells, KC), macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), macrophage inflammatory protein 2,
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and other important inflammatory genes and related enzymes were up-regulated;
Because these inflammatory mediators and enzymes are regulated by NF-KB, they infer that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of rosmarinic acid may be associated with inhibition of PKC. NF-KB signaling pathway, and pointed out that rosmarinic acid anti-inflammatory effect and antioxidant effect (inhibition of oxidative DNA damage) is the rosemary extract anti-tumor effect of the foundation.
Tumor necrosis factor. D (tumor necrosis factor.0 [, TNF.a] can be used for tumor biological therapy. But because of TNF. N can activate the NF-KB signaling pathway, causing a series of inflammatory responses that limit its use.
Plantnat Natural Ingredients Inc. found that rosmarinic acid inhibited IzB kinase B (in.hibit kappa B kinase beta, IKKl3) activity, thereby inhibiting TNF. 0 [induced NF-zB of the classical activation pathway and CCLll and CCR3 gene expression. Moon and other use of rosmarinic acid and TNF. Ot combined with human leukemia U937 cells, the results showed that: ① rosmarinic acid can inhibit TNF-Ot induced nuclear factor KB protein (in-hibitor of nuclear factor zB kinase n, IzBa) phosphorylation and degradation, inhibition of PS0 and P65 nuclear translocation, inhibition of NF. ZB – dependent inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) IAP. I, IAP-2, XIAP. Significant inhibition of TNFa – induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ③ with the use of TNF alone. The combined effect of rosmarinic acid can significantly induce caspase-3, caspased} activity and promote apoptosis. A series of studies have shown that rosmarinic acid can inhibit TNF. A – induced NF – KB activation and ROS production, sensitized TNF. Ot-induced apoptosis. “COX-2 plays an important role in the development of tumors.
In benign and tumor cells, rosmarinic acid can inhibit the expression of COX-2 gene by activating activator protein 1 (AP-1), which may also be rosmarinic acid Anti-tumor effect of one of the mechanisms.
Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (1ymphocyte. Specific proteintinrosine kinase,Lek) SH2 domain (Src homology 2 domain) plays an important role in the activation of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway.
Plantnat Natural Ingredients Inc. Techology staff found rosmarinic acid can inhibit the TCR signaling pathway, and ultimately inhibit T cell proliferation. Park and others compound 18 rosmarinic acid analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their binding to the SH2 domain and T cell inhibition. Some of these compounds were higher at the molecular or cellular level than rosmarinic acid. Rosmarinic acid as a Lck SH2 inhibitor, can be used for autoimmune diseases, organ transplant rejection and other immune diseases treatment.
Plantnat Natural Ingredients techology staff Found that rosmarinic acid combined with CDl54 monoclonal antibody in pancreatic islet-transplanted diabetic mice to prolong the survival of the graft, indicating that rosmarinic acid and CDl54 monoclonal antibody on mouse islet transplantation after transplantation survival effect.
7.Antiplatelet aggregation and thrombosis
In vitro experiments show that rosmarinic acid has anti-platelet aggregation, rat experiments also showed that it can inhibit venous thrombosis, inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation, promote fibrinolytic activity, showing a mild anti-thrombosis, the mechanism May be associated with antiplatelet aggregation and enhanced fibrinolytic activity.
Rosmarinic acid can inhibit the proliferation, migration, adhesion and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Meanwhile, the levels of intracellular ROS and the inhibition of H: O: induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ) Expression and IL-8 release
Plantnat Natural Ingredients techology staff Found that administration of the rosemary acid in the model of retinopathy in premature infants was significantly reduced in retinal neovascularization.
Previous studies have found that rosmarinic acid is the main active ingredient in the antidepressant effect of rosemary leaves. Ito et al. Found that rosmarinic acid could promote the proliferation of neonatal dentate gyrus newborn cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner, and thus deduced the proliferation of rosmarinic acid Is one of the mechanisms by which it plays an antidepressant role.
Rosmary acid can play a role in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Rosmarinic acid can inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase [IC = = (0.44 ± 0.03) mg · mL “].
Rosmary acid can inhibit AB protein induced ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, caspase. 3 activation, tau hyperphosphorylation, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) phosphorylation, antagonizing AB protein on PCI2 cells toxicity, play a neuroprotective effect.
Rosmarinic acid can antagonize H: 0: induced ROS formation and SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis, the mechanism of action related to Bax
Protein up – regulation and down – regulation of Bcl protein expression, as well as PKA / P13K signaling pathway associated with heme oxidase. 1 (hemeoxygenase-1, HO-1) expression was up-regulated.
It has also been reported that rosmarinic acid has antagonized the role of glutamate in the apoptosis of PCI2 cells. The mechanism of action also involves the regulation of Bax and Bcl-xl gene expression.
Rosmary extract has a variety of pharmacological effects, inflammation, cancer, allergies, Alzheimer’s disease and other diseases have therapeutic effect. At the same time, rosmarinic acid is rich in plant sources, its extraction, separation, analysis of the method is more fully, its metabolic properties have been more in-depth study.
Therefore, rosmarinic acid has a good application prospects. The in-depth study of the mechanism of rosmarinic acid and structural optimization will contribute to the development of rosmary acid.