1> Sources and Habitation
Sophora japonica, Soybeans and soy foods are the major dietary sources of these substances. Nonfermented soy foods, such as tofu, contain higher levels of the genistein glycosides, while fermented soy foods, such as tempeh and miso, contain higher levels of the aglycone.
2> Descriptions and Specifications of Product
Plant original: Sophora japonica L.
Specifications: 98.0% Genistein Test by HPLC
Molecular Formula: C15H10O5
Molecular Mass: 270.24
CAS No: 446-72-0
1>Function and Application
Genistein is classified as a phytoestrogen which are plant-derived nonsteroidal compounds that possess estrogen-like biological activity. Genistein has been found to have both weak estrogenic and weak anti-estrogenic effects.Genistein has weak estrogenic activity as measured in in vivo and in vitro assays. In vivo,its estrogenic activity is one-third that of glycitein and four times greater than that of daidzein.
Genistein has been found to have a number of antioxidant activities. It is a scavenger of reactive oxygen species and inhibits lipid peroxidation.It also inhibits superoxide anion generation by the enzyme xanthine oxidase. In addition, genistein, in animal experiments, has been found to increase the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase.
Many of the often-cited genotoxic effects of genistein, including apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, topoisomerase inhibition and others become less obvious. Recent cellular, epigenetic and microarray studies are beginning to decipher genistein effects that occur at dietarily relevant low concentrations. In toxicology, the well accepted principle of “the dose defines the poison” applies to many toxicants and can be invoked, as herein, to distinguish genotoxic versus potentially beneficial in vitro effects of natural dietary products such as genistein.
3> Dosage Information
In consideration of levels of dietary genistein uptake and bioavailability we have defined in vitro concentrations of genistein >5 microM as non-physiological, and thus “high” doses.
The Information had not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration, only for reference
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